So having narrated the magnitude of the achievement, with much enthusiasm he invites the world to commendation – hence his use of repetitiory and his invitation not simply to sing praise but to do so with deep understanding’. What is the meaning of sing intelligently? By learning what had happened, he is saying, by considering the magnitude of the achievements. In my view, however, he is touching on something else by saying intelligently: to sing not only in voice but also in deed, not only with the tongue but also with one’s life. God reigned over the nations, he says, note; another version, “upon the nations.” What sort of reign does he mention here? Not that which is based on creation, but that which comes from close affinity. Before this, you see, he ruled over everything on the basis of being their creator and maker, whereas now over willing and grateful subjects – something that calls for the highest praise and deep wonder for the reason that the one previously abused by the Jews caused such a transformation to occur that everywhere in the world his praises are sung. Those who had not read the biblical authors nor were trained in the Law, but in manners resembled brute beasts, were suddenly transformed, and abjuring all those forms of error they became subject to him, not one nation, or three, or four, or ten, but those living in all parts of the world.